• Salt Marshes Are Essential Climate Solutions. How Do We Protect Them?

    Salt Marshes Are Essential Climate Solutions. How Do We Protect Them?

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    What’s your favorite flavor marsh?


    Yesterday was World Wetlands Day, and salt marshes are some of the most important wetlands in the world. Found along the entire U.S. coastline (and every continent except Antarctica), salt marshes absorb carbon, protect coastlines from erosion, filter pollutants, provide many economic benefits, and provide habitats for many important fish and shellfish species we eat. They also act as natural buffers when floods and hurricanes hit, making them a really important climate solution. But they’re under threat due to historic human ditching, invasive green crabs, and worsening sea level rise. Today, we explore why salt marshes are important, what challenges they face, and how we can help them moving forward. With special guest Dr. Sergio Fagherazzi: Professor of Earth & Environment at Boston University.

    The Sweaty Penguin is presented by Peril and Promise: a public media initiative from The WNET Group in New York, reporting on the issues and solutions around climate change. You can learn more at pbs.org/perilandpromise.

    Support the show and unlock exclusive merch, bonus content, and more for as little as $5/month at patreon.com/thesweatypenguin.

    CREDITS

    Writers: Ysabel Wulfing, Madeleine Salman, Ethan Brown

    Fact Checker: Owen Reith

    Editor: Megan Antone

    Producers: Olivia Amitay, Ethan Brown, Hallie Cordingley, Shannon Damiano, Maddy Schmidt

    Ad Voiceover: Maddy Schmidt

    Music: Brett Sawka

    The opinions expressed in this podcast are those of the host and guests. They do not necessarily reflect the opinions or views of Peril and Promise or The WNET Group.


    Clips

  • Could Climate Tipping Points Be Avoided With Social Tipping Points?

    Could Climate Tipping Points Be Avoided With Social Tipping Points?

    In the early 2000s, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) introduced the concept of a climate tipping point— a warming threshold that, when crossed, causes an irreversible positive feedback loop, producing cascading effects on the climate. When the term was born, the IPCC believed these tipping points would only occur if global warming reached 5ºC. Two decades later, a major review study published by Science journal warned that there is a “significant likelihood” of multiple climate tipping points being crossed if global warming exceeds 1.5°C, and a possibility that some tipping points may have been hit already.

    While many activists, scientists, and news outlets were quick to respond with apocalyptic, worse-case scenario takes, others have envisioned a different kind of tipping point with positive implications for the climate. A social tipping point refers to a point within a socio-environmental system at which a small qualitative change can “inevitably and often irreversibly lead to a qualitatively different state of the social system.” For a while, social tipping points were more of an inspirational concept rather than an actionable or measurable way of combating climate change. A 2020 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS) sought to change that.

    The study compiled data from an expert survey, an expert workshop, and an extensive literature review to identify six social tipping elements (STEs), or societal subsystems in which a meaningful amount of greenhouse gasses are at stake. In order to qualify as an STE, researchers had to identify a small change or intervention in the subsystem that could lead to large changes at the macroscopic level. These changes, or social tipping interventions (STIs), also had to be feasible within a 15 to 30 year time frame.

    Below are the six STEs the researchers identified and the factors that influence them.

    1. 1 Energy Production and Storage Systems

      The researchers established that a tipping point could occur when renewable energy production yields higher financial returns than fossil fuel energy production. One intervention that could provide this outcome is removing all subsidies from fossil fuels. The second intervention identified by the study is the redirection of government support to clean and decentralized energy. The world is actually already reaching this tipping point. Renewables have already become the cheapest source of energy in many regions of the world despite subsidies often working against them, with the price of large-scale solar photovoltaics decreasing by 89% between 2009 and 2019.

    2. 2 Human Settlements

      Direct and indirect emissions from buildings account for almost 20% of all carbon emissions. That’s why researchers stress the importance of large-scale demonstration projects such as carbon-neutral cities. Carbon-neutral cities could educate the general public and drive consumer interest in emerging clean technologies, accelerating their adoption and commercialization. This system’s tipping point will have been reached when fossil-fuel-free technologies become the primary choice for new construction and infrastructure projects.

    3. 3 The Financial Market

      Many believe a financial carbon bubble is emerging that could burst when enough investors perceive fossil fuel investments as too risky. While cleaner energy sources such as solar and wind are steady investments (once a solar or wind farm is constructed, it will continually generate revenue), fossil fuels can be very volatile as production numbers vary from year to year. If large investors warned against the global risk associated with fossil-fuel assets, an avalanche effect may be triggered, bringing rapid change to investment practices. The study identifies divestment campaigns as an effective intervention to achieve this system’s tipping point. Fossil fuel divestment campaigns urge institutions like universities, faith groups, pension funds, and insurance companies to get rid of stocks, bonds, or investment funds tied to fossil fuels. The divestment movement largely started in 2011, when students across multiple college campuses hosted protests urging their administration to rethink their fossil fuel investments.

    4. 4 Norms and Values System

      Social scientists have long observed that shifts in behaviors or beliefs by a minority of the population can incite abrupt, widespread shifts in cultural values and practices. A recent study published by Science journal found that dominant social norms can be changed by roughly 25% of a group. Arguing that there is a moral implication surrounding the continued burning of fossil fuels and resulting environmental, health, and justice issues is an intervention researchers believe is likely to induce a tipping process through changes in normative systems. Today’s environmental movements and policies give researchers hope that a change in norms and values may be taking place right now.

    5. 5 The Education System

      The intervention identified to shift the education system is straightforward: increase the quantity and quality of climate coverage in primary and secondary education. While many teachers include basic coverage of climate change, comprehensive approaches at all levels of public education are still rarely seen. Changes to educational programs in the present can lead to a social tipping process, once the new generation enters the workforce and public decision-making bodies. Researchers also note that educational campaigns can be strengthened by more reliable media and a supportive community.

    6. 6 Information Feedbacks

      The final tipping intervention relates to the flow of information and the creation of positive information feedbacks. The study argues that transparency and disclosure of information about carbon emissions goes beyond climate policy implications and promotes public and consumer awareness. One example the researchers cite is the disclosure of relationships between RWE, the biggest energy company in Germany, and local politicians protecting their interest in coal extraction. The disclosure triggered a national social movement and massive public demonstrations against plans to clear the Hambach Forest.

      Despite the useful exploration of how social systems can be influenced to produce positive environmental benefits, this study is no silver bullet for solving the climate crisis. Critics argue that climate change’s complexity makes it hard to use historical precedents to predict future socio-environmental outcomes. It’s also hard to predict the collective behavior of 8 billion people with incredibly diverse life stories. However, this study can help guide the discussion around social tipping points to produce more concrete paths for change.

  • Nuclear Fusion Is Not the “Holy Grail of Clean Energy”

    Nuclear Fusion Is Not the “Holy Grail of Clean Energy”

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    TOI E42

    What is your favorite clean energy source?


    In December, the National Ignition Facility announced a breakthrough in nuclear fusion technology: for the first time, a nuclear fusion reaction created a net gain of energy, and since that reaction doesn’t emit carbon or other pollutants, a lot of people have proclaimed that we are one step closer to achieving “the holy grail of clean energy.” But as exciting as this breakthrough is from a scientific perspective, “holy grail of clean energy” is a bit of a stretch. Ethan breaks down why today’s clean energy sources are way further developed than nuclear fusion and why nuclear fusion isn’t necessarily required for a clean energy transition in this week’s “Tip of the Iceberg.”

    The Sweaty Penguin is presented by Peril and Promise: a public media initiative from The WNET Group in New York, reporting on the issues and solutions around climate change. You can learn more at pbs.org/perilandpromise.

    Support the show and unlock exclusive merch, bonus content, and more for as little as $5/month at patreon.com/thesweatypenguin.

    CREDITS

    Writers: Ethan Brown, Madeleine Salman, Maddy Schmidt

    Fact Checker: Hallie Cordingley

    Editor: Megan Antone

    Producers: Ethan Brown, Olivia Amitay, Hallie Cordingley, Shannon Damiano, Maddy Schmidt

    Ad Voiceover: Maddy Schmidt

    Music: Brett Sawka

    The opinions expressed in this podcast are those of the host and guests. They do not necessarily reflect the opinions or views of Peril and Promise or The WNET Group.

  • Fifty Years Later: 5 Clean Water Act Success Stories

    Fifty Years Later: 5 Clean Water Act Success Stories

    In 1972, Congress passed the Clean Water Act with the intention to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Nation’s waterways. This law represented an astounding step towards protecting our Nation’s waters by requiring states to set clean water standards to provide benefits for drinking water, public health, recreation, and wildlife. More than fifty years later, the Clean Water Act has funded approximately 35,000 grants totaling $1 trillion invested towards curbing water pollution. As a result, 700 billion pounds of pollution have been diverted from America’s rivers and the number of waters that meet clean water goals has doubled since 1972.

    Here are five environmental success stories that the Clean Water Act helped create:

    1. 1 Cuyahoga River

      In 1969, Cleveland’s Cuyahoga River apocalyptically caught on fire for the thirteenth time, cementing  ignited an outrage from environmentalists across the country and the river became a cleathe River’s status as one of the most polluted waterways in America. The incidentn-up priority with the subsequent Clean Water Act. The Cuyahoga River has made great strides since then, due to sewage treatment plant grants and more stringent permitting systems brought forth by the Clean Water Act. In 1967, not a single fish could be found in the river between Akron and Cleveland. Today, more than 70 species can be found in its waters and in 2019, the Ohio EPA declared that these fish were safe to eat. The Cuyahoga River has now been designated as an Ohio Scenic River, an American Heritage River, and an Ohio Water Trail, which encourages recreational activity to return to the formerly hazardous river.

    2. 2 Monterey Bay

      Despite being known as the “Serengeti of the Sea,” for its diversity of wildlife, California’s Monterey Bay has battled a number of environmental health hazards. Before the Clean Water Act, individual communities had their own sewage treatment plants, often discharging sparsely treated wastewater as little as 300 feet offshore. The passage of the Clean Water Act catalyzed the formation of Monterey One Water, a centralized agency for water supply and sanitation that vastly elevated wastewater quality standards. The Clean Water Act also provided funding to conserve land upstream and prevent runoff into the Bay’s many freshwater tributaries. Thanks to the improved state of Monterey Bay, Monterey county welcomed 4.6 million visitors in the 2018-2019 fiscal year, generating $2.98 billion in visitor spending and employing over 25,000 people in the tourism industry.

    3. 3 Potomac River

      Before the Clean Water Act was passed, 240 million gallons of waste flowed into the Potomac River daily. The river was considered a severe health hazard, enough so that anyone who fell into it was advised to get a tetanus shot. The Clean Water Act’s limits on sewage and other pollutants, coupled with regional cooperative efforts and improvements at the Blue Plains wastewater facility in Southwest DC, greatly improved water quality. Less than five years after the Clean Water Act was passed, there was a noticeable lack of blue-green algae that had covered the upper estuary a decade earlier and largemouth bass had returned to the river. More recently, the D.C. government has put forth plans to utilize Clean Water Act grant funding to replace its outdated sewage and stormwater system, a project estimated to reduce nitrogen discharges to Chesapeake Bay by one million pounds annually.

    4. 4 Bristol Bay

      Bristol Bay’s sprawling watershed of streams, rivers, wetlands, and tundra houses one of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world. Within this Alaskan ecosystem lies the world's most valuable wild salmon fishery in the world, supplying almost half of the world’s sockeye salmon, supporting 13,000 jobs, and creating $1.5 billion in economic activity.  Bristol Bay is the location of the proposed Pebble Mine, an open pit gold and copper mine that would permanently destroy 2,200 acres of wetlands and waters and 105 miles of streams. Tribal leaders and conservation groups have long advocated for the EPA to exercise its veto power endowed by section 404c of the Clean Water Act. In May 2022, the EPA issued a draft proposal to use its Clean Water Act veto to permanently block the mine, with a final determination expected by the end of January 2023.

    5. 5 Des Plaines River

      By the early 1960s, it was hard to find any fish at all in Illinois’ Des Plaines River; between 1959 and 1964, common carp and goldfish, both invasive species, constituted 97% of the river’s catch. Over the past fifty years, the Des Plaines River has transformed from a degraded stream to a healthy urban fishery thanks to improvements from the Clean Water Act. The Act allowed Chicago to form the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan, a project that will capture nearly 20 billion gallons of sewage and urban runoff during storms once complete. In 2018, just one year after a large storage reservoir became functional, the amount of fish in the Des Plaines nearly doubled. This increase also comprised socioeconomically valuable sport fish, with the proportion of sport fish rising from less than 1% between 1959–1964 to 69% between 2010–2013.

  • Extreme Heat Disproportionately Impacts LGBTQ+ Communities, Say Experts

    Extreme Heat Disproportionately Impacts LGBTQ+ Communities, Say Experts

    LGBTQIA+ communities are more likely to experience homelessness, air pollution and health problems compared to their cisgender, heterosexual counterparts because of extreme heat, say experts.

    Extreme heat is a period of high heat, usually alongside high humidity, with temperatures above 90 degrees for at least two to three days in most of the United States, according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

    A webinar hosted by the National Integrated Heat Health Information System featured three heat experts who spoke about the “unique risks and exposure to extreme heat in LGBTQIA+ communities.”

    LGBTQ+ communities are especially susceptible to violence and discrimination based on their identity. With between 20% and 45% of homeless youth identifying as LGBTQ, they are at risk of harassment and violence, rejection from housing or being charged higher rents and misgendering.

    This means poor quality housing, usually a lack of air conditioning and greater air pollution for low-income and LGBTQ+ people.

    Dr. Michael Méndez, a professor of urban planning and public policy at the University of California, Irvine, said these effects of extreme heat create a layering effect that causes things like asthma and cancer.

    “Heat waves in California are not isolated events,” said Méndez. “They often now compound with other hazards, comorbidities, or what is called a syndemic in the field of public health.”

    In the western U.S., temperatures sat above average by four to six degrees Fahrenheit, according to the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, Monthly National Climate Report for September 2022. In the mainland, the average temperature this September was the fifth warmest in the last 128 years.

    “LGBTQ+ people exist within all communities, already considered vulnerable or disproportionately impacted by disasters,” said Vanessa Raditz, a queer educator and co-founding member of Queer Ecojustice Project.

    They emphasized that the LGBTQ+ population is not separate from other minority groups. For example, low-income, disabled and/or communities of color include LGBTQ+ people as well.

    Dr. Bhargavi Chekuri, the co-director of the Diploma in Climate Medicine University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine, said she has seen a high risk for LGBTQ+ individuals and depression, anxiety, suicide, substance use and STDs.

    Chekuri stressed the need for strong and inclusive public health services, which the medical field still needs to transition to.

    “The vast majority of global health research … still define gender as binary,” she said. “And often … there’s not a collection of sex and gender disaggregated data.”

    Some states like South Carolina and Texas have proposed or passed religious exemptions “to ban insurance coverage of medical medication that prevents transmission of HIV or prep medication,” said Méndez.

    “We should ask ourselves in a disaster: how would these religious exemptions impact the health of LGBTQ communities during disasters?” he said. “Will this extend more broadly to only disaster response efforts and other types of services?”

    Even though LGBTQ+ communities face adverse effects of heat risk, they should also be recognized for their resilience, said Raditz.

    “I would like to emphasize that this is not only a story of LGBTQ+ vulnerability, but also one of resilience, such as this story of an LGBT Center in Sacramento, California, which opened up as a cooling center for the community, including for homeless youth and elders,” they said.

    LQBTQ+ individuals helped with urban tree planting efforts for organizations like the Friends of the Urban Forest in San Francisco, California.

    However, Raditz said the LGBTQ+ community cannot shoulder the responsibility of their climate resilience alone. 

    “We really emphasize partnering with LGBTQ plus communities to enhance their capacity for resilience through policy and socioeconomic resources,” they said.

  • Why Does Climate Change Worsen Droughts?

    Why Does Climate Change Worsen Droughts?


    Drought is one of the most commonly cited impacts of climate change, leading to water shortages, crop failures, wildfires, and social inequalities. But why do droughts happen? And how does climate change play in? Today, we’ve got a “Drought 101” as it were — we’ll explore the science behind droughts, a variety of their consequences, and some possible solutions. With special guest Dr. Karletta Chief: Director of the Indigenous Resilience Center at the University of Arizona.

    The Sweaty Penguin is presented by Peril and Promise: a public media initiative from The WNET Group in New York, reporting on the issues and solutions around climate change. You can learn more at pbs.org/perilandpromise.

    Support the show and unlock exclusive merch, bonus content, and more for as little as $5/month at patreon.com/thesweatypenguin.


    Clips

     

  • How Climate Change Impacts Each Type of Natural Disaster

    How Climate Change Impacts Each Type of Natural Disaster

    The term natural disaster is defined as “a sudden and terrible event in nature that usually results in serious damage and many deaths.” According to the World Economic Forum, the most common natural disasters include floods, storms, earthquakes, extreme temperatures, landslides, droughts, wildfires, and volcanic activity. How does climate change impact each of these extreme events?

    1. 1 Floods

      Floods are the most frequent natural disaster and have impacted every U.S. state and nearly every country. The connection between floods and climate change comes down to a few ways that climate change is impacting water. First, higher temperatures lead to increased levels of evaporation, creating denser clouds that hold more water. This eventually leads to heavier precipitation that can cause flooding. Second, more frequent and intense storms such as hurricanes can lead to floods. Finally, higher sea levels due to melting glaciers can also prompt coastal flooding. 

      Floods can also be exacerbated by how humans manage waterways and spur urbanization.

    2. 2 Storms

      Storms are impacted by climate change in the same way that some floods are, via the effect that higher temperatures have on evaporation and subsequent precipitation. With clouds holding increased amounts of water vapor, more powerful storms develop.

    3. 3 Earthquakes

      The connection between earthquakes and climate change is slightly less straightforward, and certainly less influential. Most earthquakes occur when tectonic plates within the Earth’s crust change or move. Many things can lead to this, but where climate change comes into play is once again related to water. Earthquakes can be triggered or prevented by variability in stress on a fault between tectonic plates. Stress on these faults is impacted by surface water from rain or snow. When there is heavier rainfall, this precipitation and any subsequent flooding increases stress and decreases seismicity. When the season dries up and there’s less water, the weight on the Earth’s crust decreases and this can lead to microseismicity.

      As of now, the majority of the connection between earthquakes and climate change is with microseismicity, or tiny earthquakes, which have magnitudes of less than zero and are so small that humans can’t feel them. While additional connections can be made, such as impacts from pumping groundwater during droughts, connections between larger earthquakes and climate change have largely not been proven, though the rapid movement of glaciers has also been shown to cause glacial earthquakes.

    4. 4 Extreme Temperatures

      Climate change can lead to both extreme high temperatures and extreme low temperatures. The connection with extreme high temperatures is more intuitive — greenhouse gases are being trapped in the atmosphere and this leads to warming. However, the connection to extreme low temperatures can be harder for some people to make. Lower temperatures in some regions are a result of the polar vortex being warmer, causing it to weaken and dip down further than it normally would, bringing with it colder temperatures. This is further exacerbated by impacts to the jet stream that change the pattern of where and when hot and cold temperatures typically occur. These two combined have led to hotter summers and harsher winters in some areas.

    5. 5 Landslides

      Landslides are connected to rainfall as well. Due to climate change’s impact on evaporation and precipitation, more frequent and intense rainfall events can lead to more landslides.

    6. 6 Droughts

      On the other side of the water spectrum are droughts, though they result from the same process. Droughts are a natural part of the climate cycle, but climate change is making them more frequent, severe, and prolonged. While higher levels of evaporation lead to eventual severe rainfall, in some regions, this shift means drier conditions due to the loss of the evaporated water, which can lead to drought and dried out soils and vegetation. With climate change, places that are traditionally dry are becoming drier through the higher levels of evaporation and places that are traditionally wet are becoming wetter through the higher levels of rainfall that result.

    7. 7 Wildfires

      Wildfires are a consequence of the drier conditions caused by climate change in some areas. The wildfire season is much longer than in previous years and the number of wildfires per season has tripled. Severe heat and drought provide fuel for fires through drier soils and vegetation that is more flammable. Additionally, due to warmer temperatures, snowpacks are melting earlier, meaning that forests are drier for longer periods of time and increasingly at risk of fires.

    8. 8 Volcanic Activity

      Similar to earthquakes, volcanic activity has a less direct relationship with climate change. Volcanoes do contribute to changes in Earth’s atmosphere through spewing CO2, aerosols, ash, and metals into the atmosphere, but they have a net cooling effect. This is due to the impact that aerosols have on cooling versus warming.

      On the flip side, there is some evidence to suggest that climate change could increase eruptions in a similar way that they impact seismic activity, through lessening the pressure on the Earth’s surface. In this case, this decreased pressure causes more hot magma to come in contact with aquifers, which triggers eruptions. Additionally, melting glaciers are exposing more volcanoes.

  • How Climate Change May Have Impacted the Latest Winter Storms

    How Climate Change May Have Impacted the Latest Winter Storms

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    Which stoner Seth Rogan movie do you think makes the best name for a weather event?


    The United States saw a slew of extreme weather in the last few weeks, including a winter storm around Christmas time and extreme rains and flooding in California in early January. Why did these storms happen? How did climate change play in? Ethan breaks down what we know and what we still need to learn in this week’s “Tip of the Iceberg.”

    The Sweaty Penguin is presented by Peril and Promise: a public media initiative from The WNET Group in New York, reporting on the issues and solutions around climate change. You can learn more at pbs.org/perilandpromise.

    Support the show and unlock exclusive merch, bonus content, and more for as little as $5/month at patreon.com/thesweatypenguin.

    CREDITS

    Writers: Ethan Brown

    Fact Checker: Owen Reith

    Editor: Megan Antone

    Producers: Olivia Amitay, Ethan Brown, Hallie Cordingley, Shannon Damiano, Maddy Schmidt

    Ad Voiceover: Madeleine Salman

    Music: Brett Sawka

    The opinions expressed in this podcast are those of the host and guests. They do not necessarily reflect the opinions or views of Peril and Promise or The WNET Group.

  • Canada’s Largest Gas Field Is Polluting First Nation Communities

    Canada’s Largest Gas Field Is Polluting First Nation Communities

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    What is your favorite thing about Canada?


    A few months ago, The Guardian did a five-month investigation into “carbon bombs,” or fossil fuel projects that would, over the course of their life, emit over one billion tons of carbon. They found that there are 195 planned oil and gas carbon bombs around the world, and if they proceed as planned, these projects alone would blow past internationally agreed upon climate targets. For our seventh deep dive on carbon bombs, we take a look at the Montney Formation: a 130,000 square kilometer natural gas play stretching across the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Alberta that is home to the sixth highest emitting oil and gas project on the planet. Beyond climate impacts, fracking in the Montney Formation has led to air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, seismic activity, and land disputes, seeing as much of the region is on Treaty 8 land where First Nation communities have a legal right to their traditional livelihoods. Today, we explore what issues have arisen due to fracking in the Montney Formation, how those issues impact the health and livelihoods of locals, and what comes next for this region of Canada. With special guest Dr. Elyse Caron-Beaudoin: Assistant Pprofessor of Environmental Health at the University of Toronto, Scarborough.

    The Sweaty Penguin is presented by Peril and Promise: a public media initiative from The WNET Group in New York, reporting on the issues and solutions around climate change. You can learn more at pbs.org/perilandpromise.

    Support the show and unlock exclusive merch, bonus content, and more for as little as $5/month at patreon.com/thesweatypenguin.

    CREDITS

    Writers: Owen Reith, Maddy Schmidt, Ethan Brown

    Fact Checker: Megan Crimmins

    Editor: Megan Antone

    Producers: Ethan Brown, Hallie Cordingley, Megan Crimmins, Shannon Damiano, Maddy Schmidt

    Ad Voiceover: Madeleine Salman

    Music: Brett Sawka

    The opinions expressed in this podcast are those of the host and guests. They do not necessarily reflect the opinions or views of Peril and Promise or The WNET Group.


    Clips

  • Bonus: Holiday Mailbag

    Bonus: Holiday Mailbag


    Surprise! We’re back! To finish off the year, Ethan responds to a selection of some more skeptical questions and comments from our listeners, breaking down how we know humans cause climate change, how today’s climate change differs from recent Ice Ages, and where we can be excited versus cynical with regard to climate solutions such as solar energy and carbon capture. Send in your questions anytime via social media to be featured on the show!

    Support the show and unlock exclusive merch, bonus content, and more for as little as $5/month at patreon.com/thesweatypenguin.

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